- Combat history [ ]
- Development history [ ]
- Enjoy mule days and other bishop activities
- History of mule days in bishop
- History of the mule
- Mules in the american west
- Mules in the ancient world
- Mules in the eastern sierra
- Mules in the new world
- Дерево исследований
- Дополнительное оборудование
- Игровой процесс
- Интересные факты
The Bishop is a British tier 5 self-propelled gun.
Developed on the basis of the Valentine tank. The standard turret was replaced by a stationary box-shaped cabin that featured a 25-pounder howitzer. Due to the low gun elevation angle (15 deg), the maximum firing range was only 5,800 m, which is only half as long as its firing range in the towed state.
Combat history [ ]
The Bishop first saw action during the Second Battle of El Alamein in North Africa and remained in service during the early part of the Italian Campaign. Due to the aforementioned limitations, compounding the Valentine’s characteristic slow speed, the Bishop was poorly received almost universally.
In order to compensate for insufficient elevation, crews would often build large ramps out of the earth — running the Bishop onto these tilted the whole vehicle back effectively gaining extra elevation for the gun and increasing its maximum range. It was replaced in service by the M7 Priest (105 mm)
Development history [ ]
The rapid manoeuvre warfare practiced in the North African Campaign led to a requirement for a self-propelled artillery vehicle armed with the 25 pounder gun-howitzer. In June 1941 the development was entrusted to the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company.
A prototype was ready for trials by August and 100 were ordered by November 1941. The result was a vehicle designated Ordnance QF 25-pdr on Carrier Valentine 25-pdr Mk 1 and universally known as Bishop. The Bishop was based on the Valentine II hull, with the turret replaced by a fixed boxy superstructure with large rear doors.
Into this superstructure the 25 pounder gun-howitzer was fitted. As a consequence of the gun mounting the resulting vehicle had very high silhouette, a disadvantage in desert warfare. The maximum elevation for the gun was limited to 15 degrees, lowering the range considerably to about 6,400 yards (about half that of the gun on its wheeled carriage), the maximum depression was 5 degrees and traverse 8 degrees.
Since this vehicle was designed as an anti-tank artillery piece, this range was devastating. In addition to the main armament the vehicle could carry a Bren light machine gun. By July 1942 80 Bishops had been built, and as the last 20 were being built an order for a further 50 was placed, with an option for a further 200, but the tender was abandoned in favour of the American M7 105 mm SP gun.
Enjoy mule days and other bishop activities
Arts & Crafts in the Bishop City Park
As if Mule Days weren’t enough, there is so much more to do and see in our ‘big backyard’ that you just might need to stay longer or come back again. Plan your Mule Days weekend outside of the arena with many great getaways near Bishop by calling (760)
History of mule days in bishop
Mule Barrel Racing
Mule Days began in 1969 to signal the start of the summer packing season in the high Sierra. It was an informal gathering and a test of skills among mule packers. It has grown into one of the most prestigious mule events of the year in the USA. For five days, every Memorial Day weekend, more than 30,000 fans from around the country (and the world) converge on Bishop for this colorful and fun festival.
Today over 700 mules with their trainers, riders and packers participate in 14 mule shows that include equestrian disciplines such as: Western, English, youth, barrel racing, gymkhana, packing, shoeing, chariot racing, team roping and driving. The result is a tremendous display of human and animal skills.
In addition to these equine contests, participated in by real working cowboys and cowgirls, the event presents excellent entertainment in the form of a country music concert and lively country dancing. It is a festival that brings this close-knit community together in celebration of the traditions and values that make Bishop a truly unique and special place. Take a look at the full 50th Anniversary Mule Days schedule here.
History of the mule
Mule in pasture near Bishop. Photo: @ilex_au
Mules in the american west
Mules harnessed to mining cart. Circa 1920.
Throughout the north and south mules were used to plow fields, harvest crops, and carry crops to market. During the Cotton Boom of the 1850’s the number of mules grew significantly with the majority coming from Texas, Missouri, Kentucky and Tennessee.
It was the westward expansion of the North American continent where the mule really made its mark. The wagon trains hauled by mules could cover the plains at a rate of about 30 miles per day, compared to those drawn by horses and oxen that could only average about 5 miles per day.
The Old Spanish Trail, which connected Santa Fe with Los Angeles, was said to be the most difficult trail in America. For 20 years from 1829 – 1849, mule pack trains hauled goods along this treacherous 2,700-mile trail. The stage coach lines also preferred large mules to horses.
A mule team could reach speeds of 10-miles per hour on dry, flat land. Have you ever wondered why the main streets of old western town were so wide? The commercial center of many western towns was laid out to accommodate the turning radius of mule teams.
Mules in the ancient world
There is no clear evidence about exactly when and where the first mules were bred, but it is believed that the inhabitants of Paphlagonia and Nicaea, a region that is now part modern day Turkey, were the first to breed mules over 6,000 years ago. What is known from historical texts is that the mule was a valuable pack animal in Egypt from well before 3,000 B.C.
Roman Coin depicting a cart drawn by mules
Around 1040 B.C. the mule replaced the donkey as the “royal beast” in the Holy Land. Although breeding mules was forbidden by Hebrew law, their use was not, and mules were likely imported from Egypt. King David and King Solomon rode mules to their coronations.
Homer, the Greek historian and writer, wrote in the Iliad in 800 B.C. about the arrival of mules from Asia Minor, where their breeding was reputed to be a specialty. In ancient Rome mules were widely used for transport. Their strength and endurance were highly respected and the Roman legionaries used mules in their baggage trains.
The Roman Army General Marius trained his soldiers to emulate these remarkable physical feats and every soldier was required to carry his own armor, weapons, equipment and rations – packs that weighed about 50-60 pounds – and march great distances. The soldiers became known as “Marius Mules” as a tribute to the mule’s stamina.
Mules in the eastern sierra
20 Mule Team at the Rose Parade
Another discovery that would likely not have resulted in a workable business model, if it weren’t for the mule, was that of borax in Death Valley in 1881. For eight years the company that mined the borax near Furnace Creek in Death Valley transported over 20-million pounds of borax with their 20-mule team trains to Mojave, 165-miles away.
The round-trip journey took over 20 days, covering terrain without water in extreme high temperatures. Each train consisted of two 16-foot wagons filled with borax, plus a 1,200-gallon water tank. The total load weighed over 36 tons. In all those years, not a single mule was lost. It remains one of the most enduring testaments to the stamina of the mule.
Today the mule is still a vital part of the Eastern Sierra landscape and mountain activities. At last count there were at least 16 active mule pack stations in the Sierra Nevada. These stations supply mule trains and packers for the US Forest Service crews who build and maintain back country trails and foot bridges.
The stations service mountaineering base camps, hikers along the Pacific Crest and John Muir Trails, and recreationalists looking for a mountain adventure. The Unites States Marine Corps also utilize mules for its Animal Packers Courses at its Mountain Warfare Training Center located near Bridgeport, CA.
Most recently, in 2021, the 20 Mule Team Borax Wagon Train gained national recognition when the new replica wagons and a highly trained team of mules participated in the Rose Parade in Pasadena and later in the July 4th parade in Washington DC. One hundred years after the original team was in the 1917 Rose Parade and the inaugural parade for President Woodrow Wilson in 1917, the 20 Mule Team continues to amaze audiences.
This review documents recent advances in terrestrial mercury cycling. Terrestrial mercury (Hg) research has matured in some areas, and is developing rapidly in others. We summarize the state of the science circa 2021 as a starting point, and then present the advances during the last decade in three areas: land use, sulfate deposition, and climate change.
The Arctic has emerged as a hotbed of Hg cycling, with high stream fluxes and large stores of Hg poised for release from permafrost with rapid high-latitude warming.
The bi-directional exchange of Hg between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces is better understood, thanks largely to interpretation from Hg isotopes; the latest estimates place land surface Hg re-emission lower than previously thought.
Artisanal gold mining is now thought responsible for over half the global stream flux of Hg.
There is evidence that decreasing inputs of Hg to ecosystems may bring recovery sooner than expected, despite large ecosystem stores of legacy Hg.
Freshly deposited Hg is more likely than stored Hg to methylate and be incorporated in rice.
Topography and hydrological connectivity have emerged as master variables for explaining the disparate response of THg and MeHg to forest harvest and other land disturbance.
These and other advances reported here are of value in evaluating the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention on reducing environmental Hg exposure to humans and wildlife.
Mules in the new world
More recent history shows that mules were common in Europe before the Renaissance and, while horses remained the preferred mount for heavily armored knights, mules were preferred by the nobility and clergy. Spain, Italy and France developed a flourishing mule breeding industry and by the mid-1700s the Spanish mules were considered the best in the world. Mules would be instrumental for the Conquistadores in their exploration of the American continent.
It was not until the late 18th Century that mules became a staple of the Americas. In 1785 General George Washington was presented one Spanish jack, named the “Royal Gift”, from King Charles III of Spain and began breeding the gifted jack to his mares.
Washington was a student of agriculture and saw the potential for mules in the American landscape. In 1786, French General Lafayette sent former President Washington a jack and two jennies from the island of Malta. Washington then bred the Spanish jack, Royal Gift, to the Maltese jennies creating a bigger jack that in turn would produce larger and sturdier mules for use in agricultural endeavors.
By 1799, the year of his death, his estate, Mt. Vernon, listed 58 mules on the property. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Henry Clay were just a few well known historical figures who recognized the value of the mule and continued to create better jack stock to breed with horses to make better mules.
Хоть и уровень у Bishop небольшой и исследование модулей не столь дорогостоящее, но учитывая плохое вооружение (одно из самых слабых на уровне) — зарабатывать опыт нам будет не совсем легко.
Эта линейка продолжает сохранять свои классические особенности (как минимум низкоуровневой техники) и снова огорчает нас самым слабым орудием на уровне. Наша альфа сравнима с альфой французского собрата, тогда как орудия одноуровневых Арт-САУ других стран превосходят наше в полтора-два раза (по мощности и пробитию).
Стоковый и топовый двигатели, а также всё что между ними – одна большая шутка. Хорошо, что большинство из них уже были исследованы. В любом случае, их открытие стоит очень дешево. Огорчает то, что самый мощный движок даст нам всего 9 л.с. на тонну веса, поэтому динамикой мы похвастаться не можем.
Рации уже были исследованы ранее, поэтому мы сразу сможем их поставить себе на борт. Дальности связи вполне хватит для боев такого уровня.
Возможности поставить модули и оборудование без установки ходовой части у нас нет, поэтому ее установка – обязательна. Динамика наших «гуслей» хромает – всего 22 градуса в секунду в топовом варианте. Ну что же, не привыкать.
Если два первых пункта ни у кого не вызовут удивления и радости, то третий – очень даже может. Благодаря закрытой рубке, мы имеем возможность установить улучшенную вентиляцию, тем самым, прибавив ко всем характеристикам. Этот девайс, наряду с двумя вышеуказанными, является одним из самых полезных для любой Арт-САУ. Жаль только, что установить его можно далеко не на каждую машину. Цены указаны ниже:
- «Усиленные приводы наводки» — 500.000 серебра
- «Гаубичный досылатель среднего калибра» — 300.000 серебра
- «Улучшенная вентиляция Класс 1» — 50.000 серебра
Благодаря увеличению темпа стрельбы при непрерывном огне, Бишоп может достигать очень высокой скорострельности, и соответственно, быстро убивать противников при предварительном начале стрельбы. Этот оперативник не рассчитан на перестрелки на расстоянии, поскольку урон в голову маленький, дальность тоже не лучшая, и все это ухудшается очень сильной отдачей. Если научиться эту отдачу контролировать (может понадобиться увеличение чувствительности мыши) и вовремя подгадывать момент начала стрельбы, Бишоп мало кому оставит шанс на средней-ближней дистанции. Но стоит помнить, что такая скорострельность приводит к быстрому исходу патронов. Для выбивания противника из-за укрытия с последующим “распилом” из пулемёта есть гранаты. Их время срабатывания очень большое, поэтому рассчитывать на гарантированное нанесение урона не стоит.
Способность позволяет разместить на карте до двух “глушилок”, которые отключают активные способности противников и замедляют их. Это даёт сильное преимущество против бойцов, эффективность которых сильно зависит от способности, как например многие бойцы поддержки. Аналогично можно лишить засевшего медика возможности лечить себя и/или союзника. Таким образом можно ограничивать противника в тактических возможностях, ставя глушилки в местах, где их не получится уничтожить. Но и уничтожение глушилки также обернется вражеской команде неприятностью: вся команда получит эффект «Метка», то есть местоположение бойцов будет раскрыто.
- «Стимулятор» – применение способности является важным элементом тактики, а для реализации достоинств пулемёта нужно быть на передовой, готовым быстро совершить тактический манёвр.
В переводе с английского bishop означает «епископ».