World of Tanks Classic 0.7.0 — скачать WOT образца 2011 года

World of Tanks Classic 0.7.0 - скачать WOT образца 2011 года World of Tanks

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Собака в WOT Classic

1.13
Connected Car

Monitoring of operation status, prediction of service
needs optimizes maintenance needs and costs. Driver safety
is enhanced with notifications of an early warning system
for critical road and traffic conditions.

4.1.13.1 Connected Car Example

Figure 3
shows an example of a Connected Car. In this case, a
gateway connects to car components through CAN and to the
car navigation system through a proprietary interface.
Services running in the cloud collect data pushed from
car components and analyze the data from multiple cars to
determine traffic patterns. The gateway can also consume
cloud services, in this case, to get traffic data and
show it to the driver through the car navigation
system.

connected car use case
Figure 3Connected Car

1.13.1 Connected Car Example

Figure 3
shows an example of a Connected Car. In this case, a
gateway connects to car components through CAN and to the
car navigation system through a proprietary interface.
Services running in the cloud collect data pushed from
car components and analyze the data from multiple cars to
determine traffic patterns.

connected car use case
Figure 3Connected Car

1.2
Industrial

The industrial use cases in this section are applicable
to different industry verticals.Due to the nature of overlaps in the application scenarios,
different verticals have similar use cases.

4.1.2.1 Example: Smart Factory

Figure 2
shows an example of a Smart Factory. In this case,
field-level, cell and line controllers automate different
factory equipment based on industrial communication
protocols such as PROFINET, Modbus, OPC UA TSN, EtherCAT,
or CAN. An industrial edge device collects selected data
from various controllers and makes it available to a
cloud backend service, e.g., for remote monitoring via a
dashboard or analyzes it for preventive maintenance.

smart factory use case
Figure 2Smart Factory

Smart factories require advanced monitoring of the
connected manufacturing equipment as well of the
manufactured products. They benefit from predictions of
machine failures and early discovery of anomalies to
prevent costly downtime and maintenance efforts.

Additionally, monitoring of connected manufacturing
equipment and the environment at the production facility
for the presence of poisonous gases, excessive noise or
heat increases the safety of the workers and reduces the
risks of incidents or accidents.

Real-time monitoring and KPI calculations of production
equipment helps to detect productivity problems and
optimize the supply chain.

1.2.1 Example: Smart Factory

Figure 2
shows an example of a Smart Factory. In this case,
field-level, cell and line controllers automate different
factory equipment based on industrial communication
protocols such as PROFINET, Modbus, OPC UA TSN, EtherCAT,
or CAN.

smart factory use case
Figure 2Smart Factory

2
Common Patterns

This section introduces common use case patterns that
illustrate how devices/things interact with controllers,
other devices, agents and servers. In this section, we use
the term client role as an initiator of a transport
protocol, and the term server role as a passive component of
a transport protocol.

One example of this dual role is a sensor, that registers
itself with a cloud service and regularly sends sensor
readings to the cloud. In the response messages the cloud can
adjust the transmission rate of the sensor’s messages or
select specific sensor attributes, that are to be transmitted
in future messages.

Since the sensor registers itself with
the cloud and initiates connections, it is in the ‘client’
role. However, since it also reacts to requests, that are
transmitted in response messages, it also fulfills a ‘server’
role.

2.2 Thing-to-Thing

Figure 5 shows
an example of a direct Thing-to-Thing interaction. The
scenario is as follows: a sensor detects a change of the
room condition, for example the temperature exceeding a
threshold, and issues a control message like «turn on» to
the electronic appliance. The sensor unit can issue some
trigger messages to other devices.

In this case, when two devices that have server roles
are connected, at least one device must have also a client
role that issues a message to the other to actuate or
notify.

smart home t2t use case
Figure 5Control Agent

2.3 Remote Access

This use case contains a mobile remote controller (e.g.,
on a smartphone) as shown in Figure
6. The remote controller can
switch between different network connections and protocols,
e.g., between a cellular network and a home network, which
is using protocols such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.

When the
controller is in the home network it is a trusted device
and no additional security or access control is required.
When it is outside of the trusted network, additional
access control and security mechanisms must be applied to
ensure a trusted relationship.

In this pattern, the remote controller and the
electronic appliance have a client and a server role as in
the related scenario in Figure 4.

smart home multi use case
Figure 6Multiple Network Interfaces

2.5
Edge Devices

An Edge Device or Edge Gateway is similar to a Smart
Home Gateway. We use the term to indicate additional tasks
that are carried out by the edge gateway. Whereas the home
gateway in Figure 8
primarily just bridges between the public and the trusted
network, the edge device has local compute capabilities and
typically bridges between different protocols.

edge device use case
Figure 8Edge device

2.6 Digital Twins

A digital twin is a virtual representation, i.e. a model
of a device or a group of devices that resides on a cloud
server or edge device. It can be used to represent
real-world devices which may not be continuously online, or
to run simulations of new applications and services, before
they get deployed to the real devices.

digital twin use case
Figure 9Digital Twin

Digital twins can model a single device, or they can
aggregate multiple devices in a virtual representation of
the combined devices.

digital twin multiple devices use case
Figure 10Digital Twin for Multiple Devices

Digital twins can be realized in different ways,
depending on whether a device is already connected to the
cloud, or whether it is connected to a gateway, which
itself is connected to the cloud.

4.2.6.1 Cloud-ready Devices

Figure
11
shows an example where
electronic appliances are connected directly to the
cloud. The cloud mirrors the appliances and, acting as a
digital twin, can receive commands from remote
controllers (e.g., a smartphone). Authorized controllers
can be located anywhere, as the digital twin is globally
reachable.

smart home cloud use case 1
Figure 11Appliance twin for a Cloud-ready
Devices
4.2.6.2 Legacy Devices

Figure 12 shows an example where legacy
electronic appliances cannot directly connect to the
cloud. Here, a gateway is needed to relay the connection.
The gateway works as:

The cloud mirrors the gateway with all connected
appliances and acts as a digital twin that manages them
in the cloud in conjunction with the gateway.
Furthermore, the cloud can receive commands from remote
controllers (e.g., a smartphone), which can be located
anywhere.

smart home cloud use case 2
Figure 12A Digital Twin for a Legacy Device

2.6.1 Cloud-ready Devices

Figure
11 shows an example where
electronic appliances are connected directly to the
cloud. The cloud mirrors the appliances and, acting as a
digital twin, can receive commands from remote
controllers (e.g., a smartphone). Authorized controllers
can be located anywhere, as the digital twin is globally
reachable.

smart home cloud use case 1
Figure 11Appliance twin for a Cloud-ready
Devices

2.6.2 Legacy Devices

Figure 12 shows an example where legacy
electronic appliances cannot directly connect to the
cloud. Here, a gateway is needed to relay the connection.
The gateway works as:

The cloud mirrors the gateway with all connected
appliances and acts as a digital twin that manages them
in the cloud in conjunction with the gateway.
Furthermore, the cloud can receive commands from remote
controllers (e.g., a smartphone), which can be located
anywhere.

smart home cloud use case 2
Figure 12A Digital Twin for a Legacy Device

2.7
Multi-Cloud

Typical IoT deployments consist of multiple (thousands)
of devices. Without a standardized mechanism, the
management of firmware updates for specific clouds require
a lot of effort and hinders wider scale IoT adoption.

The primary benefit of a standardized mechanism for
describing devices and device types is the capability of
deploying devices to different cloud environments without
the need of doing customization at device software /
firmware level, i.e., installing cloud specific code to a
device.

This drives adoption of Web of Things devices, since it
enables easy usage of new devices in an existing
deployment, as well as migration of existing devices from
one cloud to the other.

2.8 Cross-domain Collaboration

Figure 13 show an example of a cross-domain
collaboration. In this case, each system involves other
systems in other domains, such as Smart Factory with Smart
City, Smart City with Smart Home.

This type of system is
called «Symbiotic» ecosystem, as shown in [IEC-FOTF]. There
are two collaboration models: direct collaboration and
indirect collaboration. In the direct collaboration model,
systems exchange information directly with each other in a
peer-to-peer manner.

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In the indirect collaboration, systems
exchange information via some collaboration platform. In
order to maintain and continue this collaboration, each
system provides the metadata of their capabilities and
interfaces and adapts itself to others.

cross domain direct use casecross domain indirect use case
Figure 13Cross-domain collaboration

3
Summary

The previous section described various architecture
patterns. In these patterns, some functional entities such as
the devices including the legacy devices, controllers,
gateways and cloud servers are located at physical locations
such as inside building, outside buildings, and data centers.

In a transport protocol layer, each entity arbitrarily
selects a suitable role for communications. For example, a
device may act as a server when the device provides a service
to indefinite number of applications. On the other hand, if a
device has limited or intermittent network connectivity, they
may act as a client and actively send message to an
application when network is available.

use case summary
Figure 14Use Case Overview

WoT
Architecture

This section is normative.

To address the use cases in Section 4 and fulfill the
requirements in Section 5, the Web of Things (WoT) builds on
top of the concept of Web Things – usually simply called
Things – that can be used by so-called Consumers.

This section provides the background and
normative assertions to define the overall W3C Web of Things
architecture. As the Web of Things addresses stakeholders from
different domains, certain aspects of Web technology are
explained in more detail, in particular the concept of
hypermedia.

2
Affordances

A central aspect in W3C WoT is the provision
of machine-understandable metadata (i.e., WoT Thing Descriptions). Ideally,
such metadata is self-descriptive, so that Consumers are able to identify what
capabilities a Thing provides and how to
use the provided capabilities. A key to this
self-descriptiveness lies in the concept of affordances.

The term affordance originates in ecological psychology,
but was adopted in the field of Human-Computer Interaction
[HCI]
based on the definition by Donald Norman: «‘Affordance’
refers to the perceived and actual properties of the thing,
primarily those fundamental properties that determine just
how the thing could possibly be used.» [NORMAN]

An example for this is a door with a handle. The door
handle is an affordance, which suggests that the door can be
opened. For humans, a door handle usually also suggests
how the door can be opened; an American knob
suggests twisting, a European lever handle suggests pressing
down.

The hypermedia principle, which is one of the core
foundations of the REST architectural style [REST],
demands that any piece of information available on the Web be
linked to other pieces of information so that the consumer of
the information gets explicit knowledge about how to navigate
the Web and control Web applications.

Here, the simultaneous
presentation of information and control (provided in the form
of hyperlinks) is a mechanism that affords Web
clients the means to drive Web applications. In this context,
an affordance is the description of a hyperlink (e.g., via a
link relation type and link target attributes)

Drawn from this hypermedia principle, the Web of Things
defines Interaction
Affordances as metadata of a Thing that shows and
describes the possible choices to Consumers,
thereby suggesting how Consumers may interact
with the Thing.

A general Interaction Affordance is
navigation, which is activated by following a link, thereby
enabling Consumers to browse the Web of
Things. § 6.4 Interaction
Model defines three more types of Interaction Affordances
for W3C WoT:
Properties, Actions, and Events.

Overall, this W3C WoT definition is
aligned with HCI and interaction designers, who create
physical Things, as well as the REST and microservice
community, who is working on Web services in general.

4
Interaction Model

Originally, a Web resource usually represented a document
on the World Wide Web that can simply be fetched by a Web
client. With the introduction of Web services, resources
became more generic interaction entities that can implement
any kind of behavior.

This very high level of abstraction
makes it hard to provide a loose coupling between
applications and resources due to the manifold interaction
possibilities. As a result, at the time of writing typical
API descriptions consist of a static mapping from an
application intent to a resource address, method, request
payload structure, response payload structure, and expected
errors. This imposes a tight coupling between Web client and
Web service.

The Interaction Model of W3C WoT introduces an
intermediate abstraction that formalizes the mapping from
application intent to concrete protocol operations and also
narrows the possibilities how Interaction Affordances can be
modeled.

In
addition to navigation affordances (i.e., Web links),
ThingsMAY
offer three other types of Interaction Affordances defined by
this specification:

Properties, Actions, and Events. While
this narrow waist allows to decouple Consumers and
Things, these four types of Interaction Affordances are still
able to model virtually all interaction possibilities found
in IoT devices and services.

6.4.1
Properties

A Property is an Interaction Affordance that exposes the
state of the Thing. The state exposed by a Property
MUST be retrievable
(readable).
Optionally, the state exposed by a
Property MAY be
updated (writeable).
ThingsMAY choose to make Properties
observable by pushing the new state after a change (cf.
Observing Resources [RFC7641]).

Write-only state should be updated through an Action.

If the data is not fully
specified by the Protocol Binding used (e.g., through a
media type), Properties MAY contain one data schema
for the exposed state.

Examples of Properties are sensor values (read-only),
stateful actuators (read-write), configuration parameters
(read-write), Thing status (read-only or read-write), or
computation results (read-only).

6.4.2
Actions

An Action is an Interaction Affordance that allows to
invoke a function of the Thing. An Action
MAY manipulate state
that is not directly exposed (cf. Properties), manipulate
multiple Properties at a time, or manipulate Properties
based on internal logic (e.g., toggle).
Invoking an
Action MAY also
trigger a process on the Thing that manipulates state
(including physical state through actuators) over
time.

If the data is not fully specified
by the Protocol Binding used (e.g., through a media type),
Actions MAY contain
data schemas for optional input
parameters and output results.

Examples of Actions are changing multiple Properties
simultaneously, changing Properties over time such as
fading the brightness of a light (dimming) or with a
process that shall not be disclosed such as a proprietary
control loop algorithm, or invoking a long-lasting process
such as printing a document.

6.4.3
Events

An Event Interaction Affordance describes an event
source that pushes data asynchronously from the Thing to
the Consumer. Here not state, but state transitions (i.e.,
events) are communicated. Events MAY be triggered through conditions that are not
exposed as Properties.

If the data is not fully specified
by the Protocol Binding used (e.g., through a media type),
Events MAY contain
data schemas for the event data
and possible subscription control messages (e.g., to
subscribe with a Webhook callback URI).

Examples of Events are discrete events such as an alarm
or samples of a time series that are pushed regularly.

4.1
Properties

A Property is an Interaction Affordance that exposes the
state of the Thing. The state exposed by a Property
MUST be retrievable
(readable).Optionally, the state exposed by a
Property MAY be
updated (writeable).ThingsMAY choose to make Properties
observable by pushing the new state after a change (cf.

If the data is not fully
specified by the Protocol Binding used (e.g., through a
media type), Properties MAY contain one data schema
for the exposed state.

Examples of Properties are sensor values (read-only),
stateful actuators (read-write), configuration parameters
(read-write), Thing status (read-only or read-write), or
computation results (read-only).

4.2
Actions

An Action is an Interaction Affordance that allows to
invoke a function of the Thing. An Action
MAY manipulate state
that is not directly exposed (cf. Properties), manipulate
multiple Properties at a time, or manipulate Properties
based on internal logic (e.g., toggle).Invoking an
Action MAY also
trigger a process on the Thing that manipulates state
(including physical state through actuators) over
time.

If the data is not fully specified
by the Protocol Binding used (e.g., through a media type),
Actions MAY contain
data schemas for optional input
parameters and output results.

Examples of Actions are changing multiple Properties
simultaneously, changing Properties over time such as
fading the brightness of a light (dimming) or with a
process that shall not be disclosed such as a proprietary
control loop algorithm, or invoking a long-lasting process
such as printing a document.

4.3
Events

An Event Interaction Affordance describes an event
source that pushes data asynchronously from the Thing to
the Consumer. Here not state, but state transitions (i.e.,
events) are communicated. Events MAY be triggered through conditions that are not
exposed as Properties.

If the data is not fully specified
by the Protocol Binding used (e.g., through a media type),
Events MAY contain
data schemas for the event data
and possible subscription control messages (e.g., to
subscribe with a Webhook callback URI).

Examples of Events are discrete events such as an alarm
or samples of a time series that are pushed regularly.

Links enable Consumers (or Web clients in the
broader sense) to change the current context (cf. the set
of resource representations currently rendered in the Web
browser) or to include additional resources into the
current context, depending on the relation between context
and link target.

W3C WoT
follows the definitions of Web Linking [RFC8288], where a link is
comprised of:

  • a link context,
  • a relation type,
  • a link target, and
  • optionally target attributes.
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Link relation types are either a set of predefined
tokens that are registered with IANA [IANA-RELATIONS], which
must adhere to the ABNF [RFC5234]
LOALPHA *( LOALPHA /
DIGIT / «.» / «-» ) (e.g., stylesheet),
or extension types in the form of URIs [RFC3986].
Extension relation types MUST be compared as strings
using a case-insensitive comparison.

(If they are
serialized in a different format they are to be converted
to URIs).Nevertheless, all-lowercase URIs
SHOULD be used for
extension relation types. [RFC8288]

In the Web of Things, links are used for discovery and
to express relations between Things (e.g.,
hierarchical or functional) and relations to other
documents on the Web (e.g., manuals or alternative
representations such as CAD models).

5.2
Forms

Forms enable Consumers (or Web clients in the
broader sense) to perform operations that go beyond
dereferencing a URI (e.g., to manipulate the state of a
Thing). Consumers do so by filling
out and submitting the form to its submission
target.

This usually requires more detailed information
about the contents of the (request) message than a link can
provide (e.g., method, header fields, or other protocol
options). Forms can be seen as a request template, where
the provider pre-filled parts of the information according
to its own interface and state, and left parts blank to be
filled by the Consumers (or Web client in
general).

W3C WoT
defines forms as new hypermedia control. Note that the
definition in CoRAL is virtually identical, and hence
compatible [CoRAL].
A form is comprised of:

  • a form context,
  • an operation type,
  • a submission target,
  • a request method, and
  • optionally form fields.

A form can be viewed as a statement of «To perform an
operation type operation on form
context , issue a request method
request to submission target » where the
optional form fields may further describe the required
request.

6.2
URIs

Eligible protocols for W3C WoT MUST have an associated URI
scheme [RFC3986]
that is registered with IANA (see [IANA-URI-SCHEMES]).
Hypermedia controls rely on URIs [RFC3986]
to identify link and submission targets.

Thereby, the URI
scheme (the first component up to «:») identifies the
communication protocol to be used for Interaction Affordances with the
Thing. W3C
WoT refers to these protocols as transfer protocols.

7 WoT System Components and Their
Interconnectivity

Section § 6.1 Overview
described the WoT architecture in terms of the abstract WoT
architecture components such as Things, Consumers and Intermediaries. When
those abstract WoT architecture components are implemented as
a software stack to take a specific role in the WoT
architecture, such software stacks are called Servients.

This section uses system configuration diagrams to
illustrate how Servients work together to build
systems based on the WoT architecture.

A Thing can be implemented by a Servient. In a Thing, a Servient software stack contains a representation
of a Thing called Exposed Thing, and
makes its WoT Interface available to Consumers of the Thing.

servient as a thing
Figure 20Servient as a Thing

On the other hand, Consumers are always
implemented by Servients, as they must be able to
process the Thing Description (TD)
format and must have a protocol stack that can be configured
through Protocol Binding
information contained in the TDs.

In a Consumer, a Servient
software stack provides a representation of a Thing called Consumed Thing, and
makes it available to those applications running on the
Servient that need to process TDs to interact with
Things.

servient as a consumer
Figure 21Servient as a Consumer

A Consumed Thing instance in the
Servient software stack serves to separate the
protocol level complexity from applications. It is
communicating with Exposed Things on
behalf of the application.

7.2 Indirect Communication

In Figure
24, a Consumer and a
Thing connect to each other via an Intermediary. An Intermediary
is required if the Servients use
different protocols or if they are on different networks
that require authentication and provide access control
(e.g. firewalls).

high-level architecture with intermediary
Figure 24High-level architecture with
Intermediary

An Intermediary combines Exposed Thing and Consumed Thing
functionality. The functionality of Intermediaries includes relaying messages for the
Interaction Affordances between a
Consumer and a Thing, optionally
caching the Thing’s data for faster response,
and transforming communication when the functionality of
the Thing is extended by the Intermediary.

In an Intermediary,
a Consumed Thing creates a proxy
object of the Exposed Thing of a
Thing, and a Consumer can access
the proxy object (i.e., the Exposed Thing
of the Intermediary) through its own
Consumed Thing.

2 WoT Binding Templates

This section is non-normative.

The IoT uses a variety of protocols for accessing devices,
since no single protocol is appropriate in all contexts.
Thus, a central challenge for the Web of Things is to enable
interactions with the plethora of different IoT platforms (e.g.

, OCF, oneM2M, OMA LWM2M, OPC
UA) and devices that do not follow any particular standard,
but provide an eligible interface over a suitable network
protocol. WoT is tackling this variety through Protocol Bindings, which must meet a
number of constraints (see § 6.6 Protocol
Bindings).

The non-normative WoT Binding
Templates specification [WOT-BINDING-TEMPLATES]
provides a collection of communication metadata blueprints
that give guidance on how to interact with different IoT platforms.

When describing a particular IoT
device or service, the Binding Template
for the corresponding IoT Platform can be
used to look up the communication metadata that must be
provided in the Thing Description to
support that platform.

binding templates
Figure 26From Binding Templates to Protocol
Bindings

Figure
26 shows how Binding Templates are applied. A
WoT Binding Template is created only
once for each IoT Platform and can then be reused
in all TDs for devices of that platform.

The Consumer that is processing a TD must
implement the required Protocol Binding
by including a corresponding protocol stack and by
configuring the stack (or its messages) according to the
information given in the TD.

The communication metadata of Protocol Bindings spans five
dimensions:

1 Behavior Implementation

The behavior defines the overall application
logic of a Thing, which has several
aspects:

It includes autonomous behavior of Things (e.g., sampling of sensors or control loops
for actuators), the handlers for Interaction Affordances (i.e., the
concrete actions taken when an affordance is activated),
Consumer behavior (e.g.,
controlling a Thing or realizing mashups), and
Intermediary behavior (e.g.,
simply proxying a Thing or composing virtual
entities).

2 WoT
Runtime

Technically, the Thing abstraction and its Interaction Model is implemented in a runtime
system. This WoT Runtime maintains the execution
environment for the behavior implementation and is able to
expose and/or consume Things, and hence must
be able to fetch, process, serialize, and serve WoT Thing Descriptions.

4 Exposed Thing and Consumed Thing
Abstractions

The WoT Runtime instantiates software
representations of Things based on their TDs.
These software representations provide the interface towards
the behavior implementation.

The Exposed Thing abstraction represents
a Thing hosted locally and accessible from the
outside through the protocol stack implementation of the
Servient. The behavior implementation can fully
control Exposed Things by defining their
metadata and Interaction
Affordances, and providing their autonomous behavior.

The Consumed Thing abstraction
represents a remotely hosted Thing for Consumers that needs to be accessed using a
communication protocol. Consumed Things are
proxy objects or stubs.

The behavior implementation is
restricted to reading their metadata and activating their
Interaction Affordances as described
in the corresponding TD. Consumed Things
can also represent system features such as local hardware or
devices behind proprietary or legacy communication protocols.

In this case, the WoT Runtime must
provide the necessary adaptation between system API and
Consumed Thing. Furthermore, it must
provide corresponding TDs and make them available to the
behavior implementation, for instance, by extending whatever
discovery mechanism is provided by the WoT Runtime through the application-facing API
(e.g., the discover() method defined in the
WoT Scripting API [WOT-SCRIPTING-API]).

When using the WoT Scripting API,
Exposed Thing and Consumed Thing are JavaScript objects, which can be
created, operated on, and destroyed by application scripts.
However, access may be restricted through a security
mechanism, for instance, in multi-tenant Servients.

5 Private Security Data

Private security data, such as a secret key for
interacting with the Thing, is also conceptually managed by
the WoT Runtime, but is intentionally
not made directly accessible to the application. In fact, in
the most secure hardware implementations, such Private Security Data is stored in a
separate, isolated memory (e.g., on a secure processing
element or TPM) and only an abstract set of operations
(possibly even implemented by an isolated processor and
software stack) is provided that limit the attack surface and
prevent external disclosure of this data.

6 Protocol Stack Implementation

The protocol stack of a Servient implements
the WoT Interface of the Exposed Things and is used by Consumers to access the WoT Interface of remote Things (via Consumed Things).

It produces the concrete protocol
messages to interact over the network. Servients may implement multiple protocols, and
hence support multiple Protocol
Bindings to enable interaction with different IoT Platforms.

7 System
API

An implementation of a WoT Runtime may
provide local hardware or system services to behavior
implementations through the Thing abstraction, as
if they were accessible over a communication protocol. In
this case, the WoT Runtime should enable the
behavior implementation to instantiate Consumed Things that internally interface with the
system instead of the protocol stack.

8.2 Thing Description for
Existing Devices

It is also possible to integrate existing IoT
devices or services into the W3C Web of Things and to
use them as Things by creating a Thing Description for these
devices or services.

Such a TD can either be created
manually or via a tool or service. For example, a TD could
be generated by a service that provides automatic
translation of metadata provided by another,
ecosystem-dependent machine-readable format.

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This can only
be done, however, if the target device is using protocols
that can be described using a Protocol Binding. The requirements
for this are given in § 6.6
Protocol Bindings.

Much of the previous discussion also
implies that a Thing provides its own Thing Description. While this is a
useful pattern it is not mandatory. In particular, it may
not be possible to modify existing devices to provide their
own Thing Description directly.

implementation existing
Figure 29Integration of Existing IoT Devices into
W3C
WoT

Example WoT Deployments

This section is non-normative.

This section provides various examples of how the Web of
Things (WoT) abstract architecture may be instantiated when
devices and services that implement the Thing and Consumer roles are connected together in various
concrete topologies and deployment scenarios.

Before discussing specific topologies, we will first review
the roles that Things and Consumers can play
in a WoT network and the relationships they have with the
Exposed Thing and Consumed Thing software abstractions.

1 Thing and Consumer Roles

A Servient in the role of a Thing creates an Exposed Thing
based on a Thing Description
(TD). TDs are published and made available to other Servients that are in the roles of Consumers or Intermediaries.

TDs
may be published in various different ways: the TD might be
registered with a management system such as a Thing Directory service, or a Thing may
provide the requesters with a TD upon receiving a request for
a TD. It is even possible to statically associate a TD with
Thing in certain application scenarios.

A Servient in the role of a Consumer obtains the TD of a Thing using a
discovery mechanism and creates a Consumed Thing based on the obtained TD. The
concrete discovery mechanism depends on the individual
deployment scenario:

However, it should be noted that TDs describing devices
associated with an identifiable person may potentially be
used to infer privacy-sensitive information. Constraints on
the distribution of such TDs must therefore be incorporated
into any concrete TD discovery mechanism.

If possible, steps
to limit the information exposed in a TD may also have to be
taken, such as filtering out IDs or human-readable
information if this is not strictly necessary for a
particular use case. Privacy issues are discussed at a high
level in § 10.

Internal system functions of a device, such as interacting
with attached sensors and actuators, can also optionally be
represented as Consumed Thing
abstractions.

The functions supported by the Consumed Thing are provided to the Consumer’s behavior implementation through a
programming language interface. In the WoT Scripting API, Consumed Things
are represented by objects.

The behavior implementation (that
is, the application logic) running in a Thing can engage
through Interaction
Affordances with Consumers by using the
programming language interface provided by the Exposed Thing.

2 Topology of WoT Systems and
Deployment Scenarios

Various topologies and deployment scenarios of WoT systems
are discussed in this section. These are only example
patterns and other interconnection topologies are also
possible. The topologies described here are derived from the
Web of Things use cases (§ 4.

9.2.1 Consumer and Thing on the
Same Network

In the simplest interconnection topology, illustrated by
Figure
30
, the Consumer and Thing are on the
same network and can communicate directly with each other
without any intermediaries. One use case where this
topology arises is when the Consumer is an
orchestration service or some other IoT application running
on a gateway and the Thing is a device
interfacing to a sensor or an actuator. However, the
client/server relationship could easily be reversed; the
client could be a device in the Consumer role
accessing a service running as a Thing on a
gateway or in the cloud.

consumer and thing on the same network
Figure 30Consumer and Thing on the Same
Network

If the Thing is in the cloud and the
Consumer is on a local network (see Figure
1
for an example in a Smart
Home use case) the actual network topology may be more
complex, for example requiring NAT traversal and
disallowing certain forms of discovery. In such cases one
of the more complex topologies discussed later may be more
appropriate.

2.1 Consumer and Thing on the
Same Network

In the simplest interconnection topology, illustrated by
Figure
30, the Consumer and Thing are on the
same network and can communicate directly with each other
without any intermediaries.

One use case where this
topology arises is when the Consumer is an
orchestration service or some other IoT application running
on a gateway and the Thing is a device
interfacing to a sensor or an actuator.

consumer and thing on the same network
Figure 30Consumer and Thing on the Same
Network

If the Thing is in the cloud and the
Consumer is on a local network (see Figure
1 for an example in a Smart
Home use case) the actual network topology may be more
complex, for example requiring NAT traversal and
disallowing certain forms of discovery. In such cases one
of the more complex topologies discussed later may be more
appropriate.

2.4 Discovery Using a Thing
Directory

Once local devices (and possibly services) can be
monitored or controlled by services on cloud, a variety of
additional services can be built on top. For example, a
cloud application could change a device’s operating
condition based on an analysis of collected data.

However when the remote Intermediary
is a part of a cloud platform servicing client
applications, the clients need to be able to find device
information by, for example, accessing a directory of
connected devices.

For simplicity in the figure below we
have assumed all local devices are implemented as Things and all cloud applications as Consumers. To make the metadata of local devices
implemented as Things available to the cloud
applications, their metadata can be registered with a
Thing Directory service.

This
metadata is specifically the TDs of the local devices
modified to reflect the Public Security Metadata and
communication metadata (Protocol
Bindings) provided by the remote Intermediary.

cloud directory
Figure 33Cloud Service with Thing Directory

In more complex situations, not shown in the figure,
there may also be cloud services that act as Things. These can also register themselves with a
Thing Directory. Since a Thing Directory is a Web service, it should be
visible to the local devices through the NAT or firewall
device and its interface can even be provided with its own
TD.

Local devices acting as Consumers can then
discover the Things in the cloud via a Thing Directory and connect to the Things directly or via the local Intermediary if, for instance, protocol
translation is needed.

2.5 Service-to-Service
Connections Across Multiple Domains

Multiple cloud eco-systems each based on different IoT
platforms can work together to make a larger,
system-of-systems eco-system. Building on the previously
discussed structure of a cloud application eco-system, the
figure below shows two eco-systems connected to each other
to make a system-of-systems.

Consider the case in which a
client in one eco-system (i.e., Consumer A
below) needs to use a server in another eco-system (i.e.,
Thing B below). There is more than one mechanism
to achieve this cross eco-systems application-device
integration. Below, two mechanisms are explained, each
using a figure, to show how this can be achieved.

9.2.5.1 Connection Through Thing
Directory Synchronization

In
Figure 34
, two Thing Directories synchronize
information, which makes it possible for Consumer A to obtain the information of
Thing B through Thing
Directory
A. As described in previous sections,
remote Intermediary B maintains a
shadow implementation of Thing B. By
obtaining the TD of this shadow device, Consumer A is able to use Thing B
through the remote Intermediary
B.

service sync directory
Figure 34Multiple Cloud Connections Through Thing
Directory Synchronization
9.2.5.2 Connection Through Proxy
Synchronization

In
Figure 35
, two remote
Intermediaries synchronize
device information. When a shadow of Thing B is
created in remote Intermediary B,
the shadow’s TD is simultaneously synchronized into
remote Intermediary A. Remote Intermediary A in turn creates its own shadow
of Thing B, and registers the TD
with Thing Directory A. With this
mechanism, synchronization between Thing Directories is not
necessary.

service sync intermediary
Figure 35Multiple Cloud Connections Through
Intermediary Synchronization

2.5.1 Connection Through Thing
Directory Synchronization

In
Figure 34, two Thing Directories synchronize
information, which makes it possible for Consumer A to obtain the information of
Thing B through Thing
Directory A.

As described in previous sections,
remote Intermediary B maintains a
shadow implementation of Thing B. By
obtaining the TD of this shadow device, Consumer A is able to use Thing B
through the remote Intermediary
B.

service sync directory
Figure 34Multiple Cloud Connections Through Thing
Directory Synchronization

2.5.2 Connection Through Proxy
Synchronization

In
Figure 35, two remote
Intermediaries synchronize
device information. When a shadow of Thing B is
created in remote Intermediary B,
the shadow’s TD is simultaneously synchronized into
remote Intermediary A.

Remote Intermediary A in turn creates its own shadow
of Thing B, and registers the TD
with Thing Directory A. With this
mechanism, synchronization between Thing Directories is not
necessary.

service sync intermediary
Figure 35Multiple Cloud Connections Through
Intermediary Synchronization

B.
acknowledgments

Special thanks to Michael McCool, Takuki Kamiya, Kazuyuki
Ashimura, Sebastian Käbisch, Zoltan Kis, Elena Reshetova, Klaus
Hartke, Ari Keränen, Kazuaki Nimura, and Philippe Le Hegaret
for their contributions to this document.

Many thanks to the W3C staff and all other
active Participants of the W3C Web of Things Interest
Group (WoT IG) and Working Group (WoT WG) for their support,
technical input and suggestions that led to improvements to
this document.

The WoT WG also would like to appreciate the pioneering
efforts regarding the concept of «Web of Things» that started
as an academic initiative in the form of publications such as
[WOT-PIONEERS-1]
[WOT-PIONEERS-2]
[WOT-PIONEERS-3]
[WOT-PIONEERS-4]
and, starting in 2022, a yearly International Workshop on
the Web of Things.

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